Posts Tagged ‘charity’

What follows is extracted from this blog post I know nothing else about, which is why I’m giving you what I got out of it here instead of sending you there to try and pinpoint it.  The book-author discussed, Rodney Stark, a sociologist (and BTW, according to Wikipedia he’s not “a Mormon fanatic” as one of the Commenters over there alleges, FWIW, although we could all learn something from Mormons’ sense of mutual aid, as well as, of course, evangelization), AFAIK became big in seminaries in the ’90s not only with the book mentioned but also his co-authored one with Roger Finke about how the U.S. is so “religious” because it’s a religious free market rather than one with a legally-established faith like most European countries (which fellow socio Andrew Greeley’s research also supports, so it must be right! 😉 ).

This extract first caught my attention because of something I read in a letter to the Orthodox Again magazine a few years ago citing pre-Hitler numbers estimating that in the first century of Christianity possibly some 90 percent or more of the world’s Jews placed their faith in Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah, ie, became Christians.  (And as we know from Scripture and Church history, many of them remained identifiably “Jewish” Christians in one way or another for some time afterward.)  I didn’t know how to take that source, and half-feared it might be some Anti-Semitic (ie, anti-Jewish) screed rather than serious scholarship.  But Stark seems to come to a similar conclusion (remembering he’s not a historian but a sociologist – counting people is what they major in!).  So again, FWIW.

I don’t necessarily buy everything in this excerpt, but Big Picture, it suggests alot to me about evangelization in general, as well as other Christian and Orthodox ideals.

Here’s the blog text, pasted as is (except Stark is now teaching at Baylor University instead of U-Dub), text coloring added:

Christianity, emerged from Judaism, introducing a set of revealed truths and practices  to its adherents. Many of these beliefs and practices differed significantly from what the Greek religions and Judaism had held. In The Rise of Christianity (Princeton University Press, 1996) by Rodney Stark, professor of sociology and comparative religion at the University of Washington, gives us a new perspective on the formative years of Christianity. I mention Stark”s study because he is a scholar without an ax to grind against Christians and his research approaches the subject without any preconceptions. In one of the more startling conclusions from his research, Stark says that contrary to the current wisdom, the mission to the Jews of the early Christians was largely successful and continued right up to the year 300. According to Stark, the some four or five million Jews of the Diaspora had “adjusted to life in the Diaspora in ways that made them very marginal vis-a-vis the Jews of Jerusalem, hence the need as early as the third century for the Torah to be translated into Greek for the Jews outside of Israel (the Septuagint).”  For Jews who lived in the Hellenic world, “Christianity offered to retain much of the religious content of both cultures and to resolve the contradictions between them.” 

It should be noted that most of the new converts to Christianity came from the Hellenized peoples of the East especially the Greeks rather than from Judaism, because Christianity had much more in common with the freedom imposed by the Greek mind than the legality of Judaism.  Christianity preached the possibility of a worthwhile and even happy existence for slaves, the weak, the poor, the ugly, even barbarians, people Aristotle  and Plato would not have regarded as capable of a happy life and people the Jews would not have regarded as those like themselves chosen by God.  During the major upheavals of the fourth century Christianity emerged as the dominant movement. The new faith engaged in both dialogue and conflict with Greco-Roman culture. Christians found themselves in conflict with pagan society and even with themselves.  Change, heresy, reformations, compromises, violence, persecutions were characteristics of the fourth century but they did not stop there.

Now was the spread of Christianity a “miracle” or just coincidental based on a combinations of existing facts?  Believers like me will lean toward the miraculous.  {snip}  …I will let Stark offer the conclusions formed by his research. I stress here that historians, even those who can offer us the benefit of their research studies, can’t be sure that they have all the right answers.  They are making an educated guess. Stark points out that in 165, during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, an epidemic struck that carried away during the course of fifteen years up to a third of the total population of the empire, including Marcus Aurelius himself. In 251 a similar epidemic, most likely of measles, struck again with similar results. Historians generally acknowledge that these epidemics produced a depopulation which led in part to the decline of the Roman empire, more than the normally attributed cause of “moral degeneration.” Stark points out that these epidemics favored the rapid rise of Christianity for three reasons. One, that Christianity offered a more satisfactory account of “why bad things happen to good people,” based on the centrality of the suffering and Cross of Christ than any form of classical paganism. Second, “Christian values of love and charity, from the beginning, had been translated into norms of social service and community solidarity. When disasters struck, the Christians were better able to cope, and this resulted in substantially higher rates of survival. This meant that in the aftermath of each epidemic, Christians made up a larger and larger percentage of the population even without new converts.” Last, these epidemics left large numbers of people without the interpersonal bonds that would have prevented them from becoming Christians, thus encouraging conversion. He says, “in a sense paganism did indeed ‘topple over dead’ or at least acquired its fatal illness during these epidemics, falling victim to its relative inability to confront these crises socially or spiritually, an inability suddenly revealed by the example of its upstart challenger.”  His words not mine.

Stark introduces a number of other elements in Christianity’s rise to prominence. It was an urban phenomenon based in the teeming cities of the Roman Empire especially in the East. Stark underlines the fact that Christianity brought a new culture capable of making life in Greco-Roman cities more tolerable: “To cities filled with homeless and the impoverished, Christianity offered charity as well as hope. To cities filled with newcomers and strangers, Christianity offered an immediate basis for attachments. To cities filled with orphans and widows, Christianity provided a new and expanded sense of family. To cities torn by violent ethnic strife, Christianity offered a new basis for social solidarity. And to cities faced with epidemics, fires, and earthquakes, Christianity offered effective nursing services.”  Contrary to popular belief,  despite Christianity’s drawing power  for the poor and slaves, it also attracted the upper and middle classes in appreciable numbers.

Christianity was unusually appealing to pagan women” because “within the Christian subculture women enjoyed far higher status than did women in the Greco-Roman world at large.” He shows that Christianity recognized women as equal to men, children of God with the same supernatural destiny. Moreover the Christian moral code of prohibition against polygamy, divorce, birth control, abortion, and infanticide contributed to the well-being of women, changing their status from powerless serfs in bondage to men, to women with dignity and rights in both the Church and the State. Go to any Church service on any given day and you will understand the importance of women within the body of the Church.

Stark establishes four conclusions based on his study. One, Christianity rapidly produced a substantial surplus of females as a result of Christian prohibitions against infanticide (normally directed against girl infants), abortion (often producing the death of the mother), and the high rate of conversion to Christianity among women. Second, as already pointed out, Christian women enjoyed substantially higher status within Christian society than women did in the world at large, which made Christianity highly attractive to them. Third, the surplus of Christian women and of pagan men produced many marriages that led to the secondary conversions of pagan men to the Faith, a phenomenon that continues today.  Finally, the abundance of Christian women resulted in higher birthrates; superior fertility contributed to the rise of Christianity. 

Why did Christianity grow then? According to Stark, “It grew because Christians constituted an intense community, able to generate the ‘invincible obstinacy’ that so offended the younger Pliny but yielded immense religious rewards. And the primary means of its growth was through the united and motivated efforts of the growing numbers of Christian believers, who invited their friends, relatives, and neighbors to share the ‘good news’.” At the heart of this willingness to share one’s faith was the revealed word of God, as taught by the Church.  Acceptance of Christian doctrine was based on an article of faith. “Central doctrines of Christianity prompted and sustained attractive, liberating, and effective social relations and organization.” The chief doctrine, of course, which was radically new to a pagan world groaning under a host of miseries was that “because God loves humanity, Christians may not please God unless they love one another.”

From an article featured in the new newsletter from US-based International Orthodox Christian Charities.  Remember they’re outnumbered something like 90 to 1 just now, with most Serb residents still refugees farther north in Serbia and independent Montenegro.  IOCC and the big Serbian Orthodox monastery in Kosovo, Decani (pronounced “deh-CHAH-nee”), are trying to help people of all religions and ethnicities there.  IOCC has gotten busier in Kosovo in the last couple months, as indicated here and hereHere’s more about the work of the monastery there mentioned in the headline story of this post.

And some Orthodox welcome Kosovar independence (from a church in Philadelphia’s website, from which I guess it will pass at some point):

February 21, 2008

We greet the Declaration of Independence of Kosova with joy and prayers that justice has been accomplished for a long suffering people in what has been a sorely troubled region. We have watched with concern the saga of Kosova unfold over the decades And now we add our prayers to the many who shall work with integrity and devotion in the governance of the new state.

The journey to statehood has been a long and arduous one, replete with obstacles and misgivings, martyrdom and heroism as well as with hope and aspiration for a secure and sane way of life. The actual tasks have only just begun as Kosova faces the challenge of building up a society based on constitutional guarantees, human and civil rights and equality before the law for all citizens. In so doing, it shall secure international credibility and thus earn respect and confidence among nations.

As an Albanian Orthodox Christian, I pray that all the God-loving people and citizens of Kosova regardless of ethnicity or religious persuasion shall enjoy all the rights, priviliges and responsibilities as are accorded to the citizens of Europe’s new republic.


Very Rev. Arthur E. Liolin

Fr. Arthur is Chancellor of the OCA’s Albanian Archdiocese, pastor of its cathedral, and brother to its Ruling Hierarch, Bishop NIKON.  The Archdiocese celebrated the 100th anniversary of organized Albanian Orthodoxy in America, last Sunday in Boston (at this moment the celebration is the lead item on the OCA’s homepage) with help from the world’s other two organizationally-distinct Albanian Orthodox jurisdictions, the Albanian Diocese of America, of the Patriarchate of Constantinople; and the Autocephalous Archdiocese of Albania; with the presence of their primates.  (Archbishop ANASTASIOS of All Albania is the Greek missiologist and missionary to Africa, recruited to lead in “resurrecting” the Orthodox Church in that country in the ’90s, who has made a point of offering material assistance to all Albanians without regard to religion, including the refugees from Kosovo back then. He turned many Muslims there – the majority of the population – from hating, suspecting, and [some] trying to kill him, to loving him.)  Albanian Orthodox in Boston were key in that country’s early years of independence almost a century ago, and in emerging from Communism in the ’90s.  Here’s the Wikipedia piece, and OrthodoxWiki, which reminds us that Orthodox Christians have been in Albania since the Apostles!  Probably the best-known Albanian-Americans are the Orthodox Belushi brothers from Chicago, Jim and the late John, comedic actors.  (Sorry, Reege, this is about ‘Albanian-Albanians,’ not Italo-Albanians! Not that there’s anything wrong with that!)  This is the website of an amazing family, the Hoppes, the parents originally U.S. Protestant converts to Orthodoxy, who went to Albania to help rebuild the Orthodox Church there.  Lynette Katherine’s struggle with terminal breast cancer wrenched a sizeable portion of the U.S. and Albanian Orthodox communities, but by all accounts she not only endured with honesty and strength till the end (+August 27, 2006, Memory Eternal), but seemed to acquire, and share with all around her, a real sanctity amid it all.  She too wrote a book about the Church’s “resurrection” there.  She’s on my list of reposed possible Saints for whom I pray and whose prayers I seek.

Some personal reflections by that same blogger, a (non-Orthodox) Christian living in the Mideast, sound interesting.

Regarding charity, I know International Orthodox Christian Charities is active in Kosovo, the West Bank, Syria, and Lebanon (among other places), helping folks without regard for religion.  And even much of the Orthodox Christian Mission Center’s work, for instance in Albania, is social in nature, and also without regard for needy people’s religious affiliation – so, for that matter, is the ministry of the Orthodox Church in Albania itself, with whom OCMC works.